The Skeleton Key: A Short Story Exclusive (SIGMA Force, Book 6.5)

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I. Introduction

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National Library Board Singapore. The only stable thing in nature is change. So we have today an army of researcher who look for trends, extrapolate these trends, then conclude that they will be catastrophic and then blame humans for the trends. This are then picked up by MSM as part of its tabloidisation. And because people and politicians respond to fears and are scientific ignorant they believe in it.

We are now in a period of cooling and eventually the global warming scare will die. A nuke does kind of raise the pressure right under it when surface detonated. Used in health foods.

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There have been many references to the bias of the BBC on this thread. This suggests to me that the BBC does in fact consider the two as different topics, e. I have a stupid question regarding acidification and the sensitivity of modern coral vs. When Mt.

I could see how there could have been localized areas of the ocean where there was actual acidification for a period of time. What happened to the coral reefs in the areas that became more acidic, albeit for a brief period? This is what really annoys me about the whole AGW alarmism. In mis-labelling CO2 as a pollutant, they are masking and taking the spotlight away from REAL pollution and environmental vandalism that is much more urgent than tackling a relatively harmless trace gas which is a very useful plant food.

If the corals are so tough, then why have we lost about a fifth of the reefs since ? While initially the main causes were overfishing and pollution, in recent decades it has been mass bleaching events, triggered by warmer waters that present the main threat — Coral bleaching occurs when coral is stressed, the coral expels the colourful symbiotic unicellular algae leaving it with a whitened bleached out appearance. Bleaching is not necesarily a death sentence, if the cause of stress is removed then the coral can regenerate quite quickly.

In the future acidification by the CO2 enriched atmosphere may damage considerably the ability of corals to form hard structures. The GCRMN annual status summary had The condition of coral reefs in most regions of the world has progressively declined during the past 3 to 4 decades. Initial damage was largely caused by human activities, such as over- and destructive fishing, inappropriate coastal developments and land-use causing sedimentation and nutrient pollution, and outbreaks of coral and fish diseases and predators such as the crown-of-thorns starfish; all of which might have been exacerbated by human activities.

Caribbean reefs were also subjected to 26 named storms, including 13 hurricanes in There is also growing recognition that increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 threaten the structural integrity of reefs by reducing the rate of calcification in corals. Coincidentally the four-yearly International Coral Reef Symposium was held this year. At the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium held in July, midway in the International Year of the Reef, over experts from 75 countries assembled to face some hard truths: coral reefs are teetering on the edge of survival and it is our fault.

High levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have produced a lethal combination of hotter and less alkaline seawater.

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Pervasive overfishing, pollution, coastal development, and physical damage further undermine reef health, and consequently, that of the people and ecosystems depending upon them … Only by taking bold and urgent steps now can we hope to ensure that reefs will survive to enrich life on earth, as they have for millions of years before us. By failing to act we risk bequeathing an impoverished ocean to our children and future generations.

For those with a serious interest and a sub to Science here is a literature review , containing this plot of CO2, temp and pH from the Vostok ice cores. And the Royal Society report on the topic is here. Large pdf. It is also possible for water to transit from the Arctic Ocean considered by some to be an arm of the Atlantic ; however, the Bering Strait is shallow — so there could be no deep water transit. Frasier: Unfortunately, adding CO2 to dissolve limestone is quite different from adding CO2 to oceans over decades, which lowers pH and makes it difficult for calcifying organisms like corals and molluscs to take calcium out of solution.

This seems to be just the opposite of the results which you observed in your aquaria with corals. Presumably, if you lowered the pH of your aquarium this would have had a negative effect on your corals. This is what many scientific experiments are showing—that corals are sensitve to small decreases in pH and this results in lower Ca uptake. To examine this in a scientific experiment, you going to need replicate aquaria and you are going to need to measure and control pH and calcium in solution.

You can then measure coral growth and, perhaps, Ca uptake by the corals. If you had 9 aquaria, you could have 3 replicate controls and two levels of pH change with three resplicates of each. You could then compare your results with any number of published scientific studies. If you study is published, then we could compare your results with those of other studies. To get your paper published you would need to read up on the literature so that your study could be placed in the context of studies already published.

Scientists rely on studies published in scientific journals rather than anecdotes published on blogs. Scientific debates occur in scientific journals. When scientists start a new line of research, this often involves reading a few hundred published articles.

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  • This helps provide an understanding of what is known and what is still controversial or unstudied. By the way, what happened to the acid rain scare years ago? They see it as a threat — always bad. Ecologists are guilty of this too, and we as a species find it all too easy to forget that our brief human lifespan is but a blink of a eye in terms of natural global change as frequently discussed here! After a previous post on this subject I came across a very good presentation I will try to find it again on the subject of the decline in corals Great Barrier Reef region due to increased temperature, and one thing that struck me was that the future may bring a reverse of the decline, or a population shift as species from other warmer areas move in.

    Also, once again cf. CO2 how do we distinguish natural change from human cause and effect? Ecological alarmists always assume change is caused by man and is bad. In fact many were obsessed by accuracy. The term and concept pH was only putting a name and number to what was already being measured by wet chemistry. Using large volumes and weak acids increases accuracy — under such conditions pH titrations to 2 decimal places requires care but is not difficult. One assumes that four decimal place accuracy comes from a calculated average of many measurements. Thanks Steve for the educational posting — The media used to do stuff like this, but has somehow forgotten how, as they stand in line for their PRAVDA credentials and bailouts.

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    I believe the correct term for loss of coral reefs, at least locally, is silting. Really was spectacular what Andrew did to the place, not only was the reefs hit hard, but so were the shore line and mangroves, scars which still show to this day. I wonder what the cyclone data was like back then … hmmm. My understanding of the scientific literature on coral reefs matches well with the comments of John Philip above.

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    If coral reefs were only affected by pollution and overfishing, this would not be such a serious problem, since reefs far from human populations would be largely uneffected. For example, reefs near Florida might be at risk but the Great Barrier Reef of Australia would be relatively safe. Again, unfortunately, coral bleaching and death is occuring far from coastlines with significant local human impact. Coral bleaching in recent years has mainly been associated with ocean heating events. The optimal temperature for corals is unfortunately, less that 2oC below the lethal temperature.

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    • Temperatures too hot cause loss of the symbiotic algae that contributes most of the energy that most corals use. When the bleaching becomes long term, the corals die. Many studies show direct plots between warming events and bleaching events over large expanses of coral reefs.

      My readings suggest that the decreases in ocean pH are just becoming important corals and will become a more serious problem over the coming decades. This effect of CO2 on ocean pH is a relatively new finding that was not well known among scientists until recently. Code Tech. Scientists estimate 4 million tons of rice are lost every year because of flooding. Here is a famous picture from Hiroshima of the shadow of a person and ladder burned onto a wall, which was undamaged from the shock wave.

      My belief is that nuclear proliferation in the Middle East is far more dangerous than a few tens of PPM of extra CO2, but apparently that is not in tune with the current thinking of the best minds in Washington, London and Brussels. Corals and shellfish thrived in the oceans with CO2 levels much higher than at the present.

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