Review of ophthalmology

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Abstracting and Indexing

In the multivariate analysis, the degree of optic disc torsion was associated with the presence of a VF defect, and the torsion degree and RNFL thickness were associated with the severity of the VF effect. The researchers noted that a longitudinal study is needed to confirm whether VF-affected eyes with optic disc torsion are at increased risk of future optic nerve or VF progression. In the first study to do so, Eom et al.

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They found that the difference between the predicted refractive errors of the two formulas increased as ACD decreased in short eyes. For this retrospective cross-sectional study, the researchers enrolled 75 eyes from 75 patients with an AL of less than 22 mm. The median absolute errors MedAEs predicted by the Hoffer Q and Haigis formulas were compared, and the correlations between ACD and the predicted refractive error calculated using the two formulas were analyzed.

In a subgroup analysis, there were no significant differences between the MedAEs predicted by the two formulas when the ACD was deeper than 2. However, in patients with an ACD of less than 2.

Thus, for these patients, surgeons should use either the Haigis formula or the Hoffer Q formula with more hyperopic correction, the researchers recommended. Holekamp et al.

Expert Review of Ophthalmology

The results indicate that patients in clinical practice receive fewer injections of ranibizumab or bevacizumab and are monitored less frequently than those enrolled in clinical trials. Patients who received one or more injections of ranibizumab or bevacizumab during the 12 months after initial neovascular AMD diagnosis were included. Outcome measures were time to first injection relative to neovascular AMD diagnosis and mean numbers of intravitreal injections, ophthalmologist visits, and optical coherence tomography OCT and fluorescein angiography FA examinations in 12 months.

Over 92 percent of patients in all cohorts received first treatment within three months of being diagnosed with neovascular AMD. Compared with treatment protocols validated by clinical trials published at the time, in clinical practice, patients with neovascular AMD received fewer bevacizumab or ranibizumab injections and less frequent monitoring from to mid The authors encouraged further research to evaluate this issue and visual outcomes that may be associated with reduced utilization.

Felix et al. They found that TMP-SMX treatment resulted in a percent reduction of recurrence over a one-year period, with no significant side effects noted. A total of patients with active recurrent T. In all cases, the initially active toxoplasmosis lesions were successfully treated with twice-daily TMP-SMX for 45 days.

Subsequently, five patients dropped out of the study.

The remaining patients were randomized to two groups; two patients were later lost to follow-up. The 46 patients in group 1 were treated with a single tablet of TMP-SMX every two days, while the 47 patients in group 2 were given a placebo tablet every two days.

Expert Review of Ophthalmology

The primary outcome measure was the incidence of recurrent toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis within one year, and the secondary outcome measure was a one-year change in best-corrected visual acuity. No patients in group 1 experienced a recurrence of toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis within 12 months; in contrast, six of those in the placebo group Visual acuity improvements in the two groups were similar, and no treatment-limiting toxicity was observed.

Reem et al.

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In this single-institution, one-year prospective environmental study, the MSSA and MRSA bacteria that were isolated were highly diverse, indicating a constant introduction of clones over time. Doorknobs, slit-lamp headrests and chinrests, and computer keyboards were hot spots of contamination. Multidrug resistance was characteristic of MRSA strains. Commonly touched surfaces in examination rooms and common areas were targeted and sampled on a quarterly basis for one year. Samples were collected using electrostatic cloths and swabs. Both community-associated and hospital-associated MRSA isolates were found.

No single surface remained consistently positive with the same isolate over time, and molecular analysis demonstrated high levels of diversity among isolates. The authors proposed a surveillance protocol for important high-touch surfaces in ophthalmology clinics. Chew et al. Once the trial was completed, the investigators observed 3, of the 4, surviving participants for an additional five years.

The rates of progression to large drusen and advanced AMD neovascular AMD or central geographic atrophy were evaluated by means of annual fundus photographs assessed at a reading center. Best-corrected visual acuity was measured at annual study visits. The researchers found that the risk of progression to advanced AMD increased with increasing age and severity of drusen. Women and current smokers were at higher risk of neovascular AMD. In the oldest participants with the most severe AMD status at baseline, the point estimate risks of developing neovascular AMD and central geographic atrophy by 10 years were Similarly, rates of progression to large drusen increased with increasing severity of drusen at baseline, with The natural history of AMD prior to anti—vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for many cases of neovascular AMD demonstrates a relentless loss of vision, on average, in persons who developed advanced AMD.

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These progression data and the risk factor analyses may be helpful to investigators conducting research in clinic populations. Kim et al. Participants were from a family-based cohort study that examined data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in and Data were obtained from 9, participants.

The individuals were stratified into two groups those with or without an IOP of 19 mmHg or more based on the mean plus two standard deviations IOP value of the entire study population. IOP showed a heritable tendency from parents to their offspring in this Asian population, with the prevalence of high IOP in offspring increasing according to whether one or both parents had a high IOP.

Ophthalmology summaries are written by Jean Shaw and edited by Susan M.

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MacDonald, MD. American Journal of Ophthalmology summaries are edited by Thomas J. Liesegang, MD. Doycheva et al. They found that adalimumab and infliximab are effective and generally well tolerated, and they concluded that adalimumab is their preferred choice. For this retrospective analysis, the researchers evaluated the records of 31 children with ANA-associated uveitis who had been treated with adalimumab, etanercept, or infliximab and followed for at least two years.

Of the 31 children, 23 were treated with adalimumab, five were treated with infliximab, and three received etanercept. Arq Bras Oftalmol ; Smartphone Ophthalmoscope ODocs Fundus. Open Indirect Ophthalmoscope. LV Prasad Eye Innovations. Development and validation of a deep learning algorithm for detection of diabetic retinopathy in retinal fundus photographs. JAMA ; Automated diabetic retinopathy detection in smartphone-based fundus photography using artificial intelligence. Eye Lond Artificial neural network-based glaucoma diagnosis using retinal nerve fiber layer analysis.

Accuracy of machine learning classifiers using bilateral data from a scheimpflug camera for identifying eyes with preclinical signs of keratoconus. J Cataract Refract Surg ; Detection of subclinical keratoconus using an automated decision tree classification. Am J Ophthalmol ; Advanced Search Users Online: Review of recent innovations in ophthalmology. Kerala J Ophthalmol ; Smartphone Slit-Lamp Imaging. Figure 1: Universal slit-lamp adapter used for slit-lamp photography Click here to view. Figure 4: Virtual reality headset-based perimetry:periscreener Click here to view. Three-Dimensional Printing.

Figure 5: Three-dimensional printed smartphone fundus photography adapter Click here to view.

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