Reshaping Defence Diplomacy: New Roles for Military Cooperation and Assistance - CRC Press Book
Routledge, London—New York. Berridge G. Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. Cheyre, J. Defence Diplomacy.
In Cooper, A. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Cottey, A. Forstey, A. Ministerio de Defensa, Defence Diplomacy Plan. Dodd, T.
Oakes, M. China continued to provide military assistance to some newly liberated and independent countries and liberation movements.
The nexus between Public Diplomacy and Military Diplomacy in Foreign Affairs and Defense Policy
After the beginning of the construction of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway, China enhanced her military assistance to Tanzania. China adjusted the scope, objects, scale and means of military assistance to Africa. With regard to the object, China had gradually reduced its support to some leftist parties and anti-government forces. In terms of forms and means of military assistance, China replaced the purely free assistance with combination of free assistance and assistance with loans.
In terms of the content of assistance, the proportion of financial assistance to weapons and equipment assistance has been adjusted. In addition, forms and ways of training African military students had experienced changes. As a result, this period witnessed the rapid decline of military assistance to the liberation movements in Africa.
The fifth period from to commenced with the end of the Cold War. Beginning in , China enhanced its efforts of military diplomacy in Africa, which resulted in much more high-level military visits to African countries. To cope with the threat of Somalian piracy, the Chinese government decided to send PLA naval fleets to the Gulf of Aden to carry out escort missions in December China will unswervingly carry forward the tradition of China-Africa friendship, and proceeding from the fundamental interests of both the Chinese and African peoples, establish and develop a new type of strategic partnership with Africa, featuring political equality and mutual trust, economic win-win cooperation and cultural exchange.
In addition, seeing the rapid rise of China, many African countries began to pin much higher expectations on China.
The second objective is to safeguard national interests in Africa by supplementing bilateral political and economic relations. On the one hand, military cooperation between states is a major index of the intimacy of bilateral relations. On the other hand, military assistance and cooperation undoubtedly supplements and cements bilateral relations.
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With the rise of China and the rapid development of Sino-African relations, China has more and more political, economic and security interests in Africa. To safeguard these national interests, it is necessary for the military diplomacy to play a supplementary role by means of cementing bilateral relations.
Moreover, such non-traditional security threats as terrorism and piracy are still rampant in Africa. The third objective is to promote the building of a harmonious world by shouldering international security responsibility and duty. To China, it is both a long-term objective and a current task. China aims to make contributions to regional peace and building of a harmonious world through various activities of military diplomacy in Africa, including active participation in peacekeeping and escort missions and enhanced cooperation in the non-traditional security fields.
The last objective is to project an image of a responsible and peace-loving country to the world. Active participation in peacekeeping, disaster relief operations, arms control efforts and some other activities in Africa are meant to project a positive image abroad for China and the PLA.
It is the most common phenomenon of modern military diplomacy and includes many different forms. First, exchanges of military visits. Bilateral high-level military exchanges between China and African countries have been remained at a stable and relative high level. Second, military attaches.
In April , China and South Africa established the China-South Africa Defence Committee to exchange views on international and regional security situation as well as cooperation between the armed forces of two sides. So far, five meetings of the Defence Committee have been held. Fourth, exchanges of warship visits.
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In Oct. Fifth, functional exchanges. Functional exchanges covering military education, training, communications, logistics, equipment and technologies have been on the increase. For the first time, China sent a hospital ship, the Peace Ark, to visit the Republic of Djibouti, the Republic of Kenya, the United Republic of Tanzania, the Republic of Seychelles and other African countries and provided humanitarian medical service.
Also for the first time, China hosted workshops for heads of military academies from English-speaking African countries, for directors of military hospitals from French-speaking African countries, and for intermediate and senior officers from Portuguese-speaking African countries. Military assistance. The loans were mainly used to improve the facilities of recipients, such as building or renovation of headquarters, Ministry of Defence, training centers, upgrading military communication, or construction of hospital.
The equipment or materials were mainly uniforms, ambulances, counter-mine, military trucks and other logistics materials. In recent years, China provided free de-mining equipment to Angola, Mozambique, Chad, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Sudan and Egypt and provided fund for the mine-sweeping operation in Ethiopia. After the Reform and Opening up of China, especially after the s, foreign military training of the PLA got rid of the bondage of ideology and the objects of foreign training were broadened to the majority of developing countries and even some developed countries.
At present, there are more than 20 military colleges and training organs being involved in foreign military training. Besides regular training, PLA also provides some short-term training courses. For instance, it held de-mining training courses for Angola, Mozambique, Chad, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, and both northern and southern Sudan. Resident Resident commissioner Envoy Agent-general. Diplomatic courier Queen's Messenger Foreign minister. Diplomatic rank.
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