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A leading authority on economic globalization argues that industrialization in the core countries of northwest Europe and its overseas settlements combined with a worldwide revolution in transportation to produce deindustrialization and an antiglobal backlash in industrially lagging poorer countries.
In Globalization and the Poor Periphery before Jeffrey Williamson examines globalization through the lens of both the economist and the historian, analyzing its economic impact on industrially lagging poor countries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Williamson argues that industrialization in the core countries of northwest Europe and their overseas settlements, combined with a worldwide revolution in transportation, created an antiglobal backlash in the periphery, the poorer countries of eastern and southern Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
During the "first global century," from about to , and the antiglobal autarkic interwar period from to , new methods of transportation integrated world commodity markets and caused a boom in trade between the core and the periphery.
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Rapid productivity growth, which lowered the price of manufactured goods, led to a soaring demand in the core countries for raw materials supplied by the periphery. When the boom turned into bust, after almost a century and a half, the gap in living standards between the core and the periphery was even wider than it had been at the beginning of the cycle.
The periphery, argues Williamson, obeyed the laws of motion of the international economy.
Synthesizing and summarizing fifteen years of Williamson's pioneering work on globalization, the book documents these laws of motion in the periphery, assesses their distribution and growth consequences, and examines the response of trade policy in these regions. In order to honor the significant scientific achievements of Bertil Ohlin, the Stockholm School of Economics arranges the annual Ohlin Lectures.
These lectures are devoted to important economic problems in areas close to Ohlin's heart. The main rivalry among only two superpowers: United States and Soviet Union. Asia, Africa and Latin America were the battlegrounds for this rivalry for world domination. In Latin America, the power of United States as the imperial master was unchangelled until today, while in Africa there were some weak encroachments by Soviet Union and People's Republic of China, but the main control of the area was in the hands of Britain and France, supporting United States in the cold war.
In Asia, the situation was more complex, with India being disputed among Soviet Union and the United States until the latter's victory in the s, open war in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and South Korea, etc. United States, particularly, was utilizing the concept of "political freedom" as equivalent to "capitalist system", and supporting the most brutal dictatorships in the name of preserving "democracy" against totalitarian socialism.
Latin America, Asia and Africa witnessed in the s, s and s the creation of dictatorships by the successive U. See BOX 3 Every attempt of alternative industrialization in less developed societies was opposed by commercial and political forces based in United States and the former colonial power, originating a pattern of development which didn't work in favour of the majority of the populations in Third World countries. An excellent description of this pattern of 'dependent' development can be read in E. Galeano, Latin America and the Theory of Imperialism which covers the period until the late s.
By and large, African, Asian and Latin American societies except very few exceptions, Cuba and North Korea were exposed to the more powerful capitalist nations grafting their mode of production on them: the imposition of capitalist relations of production, by force and overwhelming economic power, creating sources of expanding production and surplus value of continuous benefit to the leading capitalist nations.
Thus, the concept of imperialism as an historical construct is central to any understanding of its effects. I will discuss imperialism in the restricted region of "european overseas expansion and empires". Because this imperialism took place when capitalist relations of production were destroying the feudal relations of production and it peaked in the XIX century alongside the triumph in Western Europe of capitalist relations of production, some historian call it the "new imperialism" Analysts recognise many factors involved: the main authors supporting the idea of "economic imperialism" recognize that political, military, and ideological influences were also at work; others who challenge the notion of "economic imperialism" still acknowledge that economic interests played a significant role.
A Study", London, : -financial interests of the capitalist class "was the governor of the imperial engine". Hobson wrote that imperialist policy had to be considered irrational if viewed from the vantage point of the nation as a whole: the economic benefits derived were far less than the costs of wars and armaments; and needed social reforms shunted aside in "the excitement of imperial adventure". But it was rational in the eyes of the minority of financial interest groups there was a persistent congestion of capital in manufacturing Vladimir Ilich LENIN, russian, revolutionary, communist "Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism", : - imperialism is so closely integrated with the structure and normal functioning of an advanced capitalism not only the financial sector that only the revolutionary overthrow of capitalism, with the substitution of socialism, would rid the world of "imperialism".
The new phase involved political and social as well as economic changes: but its economic essence is the replacement of competitive capitalism by monopoly capitalism, a more advanced stage in which finance capital, an alliance between large industrial and banking firms, dominates the economic and political life of society.
It is this monopoly capitalism and the resulting rivalry generated among monopoly capitalist nations that foster imperialism; in turn, the processes of imperialism stimulate the further development of monopoly capital and its influence over the whole society. Further, Lenin shifted the emphasis from the general problem of surplus capital, "inherent in capitalism in all its stages", to the imperatives of control over raw materials and markets in the monopoly stage.
The rivalry is intensified because of the uneven development of different capitalist nations But he accepted the thesis that the influence of class forces and class interests are major levers of social change. They evolved from critical experiences when peoples and classes were molded into warriors to avoid extinction; the warrior mentality and the interests of warrior classes live on, however, and influence events even after the vital need for wars and conquests disappears; c the drift to war and conquest is sustained and conditioned by the domestic interests of the ruling classes, often under the leadership of those individuals who have most to gain economically and socially from war.
Thus imperialism would have been swept away as capitalist society ripened.. Under monopoly capitalism the fusion of big banks and cartels creates a powerful and influential social group that pressures for exclusive control in colonies and protectorates, for the sake of higher profits". Therefore, it is in the nature of the state that the cause of imperialism will be discovered modern academic thought about imperialism follows Schumpeter's conclusion -that modern imperialism is not a product of capitalism- without paying much attention to scientific analysis, the political economy of modern imperialism, that is.
Two problems to explain remain: the close relationship between power and wealth, and the almost simultaneous eruption of the new imperialism in a whole group of leading power by the end of last century and beginning the twentieth century. By and large, Marx's logical sequence is as follows: a once capitalism is established, capitalists are driven by competition to find new methods of production which raise productivity and lower costs of production. In the absence of any external source of labour power this would cause an increase in the wage Students should read the relevant sections of my PhD dissertation in this databank.
I helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of Brown Brothers in I brought light to the Dominican Republic for American sugar interests in I helped make Honduras 'right' for American fruit companies in ". Major General Smedley D. Butler, U. Marine Corps. Wiarda and H. Kline eds. It sets up a public security agency, which sends specialists in police repression to Third World countries.
About 30, opponents of the regime 'disappear' under military rule. Two years later, the US Marines invade the country with the support of six Latin American countries to squash the popular insurrection led by Francisco Caamano to bring Bosch back to power.
Almost 5, opponents are imprisoned, killed or forced into exile. US support for the coup is rewarded by opening up the country to transnationals. Later, the military regime itself takes on a nationalist character. General Augusto Pinochet sets up one of the longest-lasting military dictatorships in the continent. With the coup in Uruguay, the cycle is completed. All of the Southern Cone of Latin America, including Paraguay, which has been ruled by General Alfredo Stroessner since , is under military control.
Branford and B. Kucinski, "The Debt Squads. The U. On Imperialism "Imperialism is the policy or goal of extending the power and rule of a government beyond the boundaries of its original state, and taking into one political unit other nations or lands. For this, the United States financed the industrialization of Western Europe Marshall plan , the industrialization of South Korea and Taiwan, and the reconstruction of Japan.
By and large, including Latin American states which decolonised themselves between and , the new nation-states were in a search for a model of development. United States political scientists, economists, sociologists, psychologists, anthropologists, and demographers teamed up and started publishing since the early s.
But not any religion. Branches of the judeo- christian religions were the right ones.
From the above, functionalist theory stated that societies tend to harmony, stability, equilibrium and the status quo. Any behaviour jeopardizing these conditions will be considered anti-social and therefore punishable, etc. New details will be emailed to you. Simply reserve online and pay at the counter when you collect.
Jeffrey Gale Williamson | IDEAS/RePEc
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